The entire structure Brukenthal National Museum today has evolved over time from a single nucleus: Baron von Brukenthal collections and a unique location: Brukenthal.
Since there was direct descendants surviving Baron von Brukenthal bequeath by will the palace, the collections and the rest of his fortune to a male line descendant of people who are related. If his followers would die themselves without children, the family is extinguished fortune to be taken by the Evangelical Church and the palace to become a museum open to the public, an event occurred in 1817.
During the nineteenth century, the museum's main concern was that the existing heritage preservation and expansion of the main collections through acquisitions, and the establishment of new collections especially Saxon cultural sphere.
In 1948, the museum was nationalized and became the property of the Romanian communist state.
Also in 1948, the Transylvanian Society of Natural Sciences from Sibiu outgoing museum under the patronage of which is included in the national heritage. In 1957, the Museum of Natural Sciences Museum became part of Brukenthal.
Museum of Hunting "August von Spiess" opened in 1966.
1972 is the year of the opening of the Museum of Pharmacy.
In 1988 the Department was inaugurated Brukenthal History Museum, the Museum of History in Altemberger.
Contemporary Art Gallery of the National Museum Brukenthal is the latest location (2006).