Canada ( /ˈkænədə/) is a country occupying most of northern North America, extending from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west and from the US mainland northern border northward into the Arctic Ocean. It is the world's second largest country by total area. Canada's common border with the United States to the south and northwest is the longest in the world.
Canada was previously inhabited by various groups of Aboriginal people referred to as First Nations. In the late 15th century, British and French began settling, along the Atlantic coast. France ceded its Canadian French colonies in 1763 after the Seven Years' War. In 1867, three British North American colonies joined through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces. This began the journey to the Canada we know today where provinces and territories joined and a process of increasing freedom from the United Kingdom occurred.
Today, Canada is a federation consisting of ten provinces and three territories, Canada is governed as a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy with Queen Elizabeth II as its current head of state. It is a bilingual nation with both English and French as official languages at the federal level.
Following the US, Canada adopted the decimal dollar system for it's currency even before Confederation. The Canadian dollar is the currency of Canada. It abbreviated with the dollar sign C$ to distinguish it from other dollar-denominated currencies.
Description thanks to bruceweese